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This two-part Implementation Guide will help to deepen your understanding and sharpen your ability to implement each of the strategies discussed in Leading School Change: Nine Strategies to Bring Everybody on Board. Part One offers discussion questions and activities which focus on each of the nine strategies. They can be completed by an educator working individually or addressed collaboratively and interactively by a group or leadership team from a school, district, or organization.
How Racially Diverse Schools and Classrooms Can Benefit All Students
It is for individuals and leadership groups to use once they have a full understanding of the nine strategies and are ready to start implementing the changes they need to improve their organizations. Customer Reviews Average Review. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview This two-part Implementation Guide will help to deepen your understanding and sharpen your ability to implement each of the strategies discussed in Leading School Change: Nine Strategies to Bring Everybody on Board.
Product Details Table of Contents. Table of Contents Part One offers discussion questions and activities which focus on each of the nine strategies. Average Review.
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This development raises new possibilities for integrated schooling. Adding further to the political and legal sustainability of integration is the emergence of new policies that rely on choice and incentives rather than compulsory busing, and that use socioeconomic rather than racial indicators as the primary basis for integration. New policies rarely rely on compulsory busing of the type used in s, the authors point out.
They note, for example, that more than forty interdistrict magnet schools have been created in the Hartford, Connecticut region to serve 16, students in schools with distinctive pedagogical or thematic approaches that are filled through voluntary choice. When The Century Foundation TCF commissioned me to write a book about socioeconomic school integration in , just two districts in the nation, educating about 30, students, were pursuing such policies.
Located in thirty-two states, both red and blue, these districts educate some 4 million students. One particularly innovative example can be found in New York State, where the commissioner of education now acting U.
Leading School Change : 9 Strategies to Bring Everybody on Board by Todd Whitaker
New policies—emphasizing choice and socioeconomic status—are proving popular among a new generation of parents. Wells, Fox and Cordova-Cobo point, for example, to a remarkable change in attitudes in Louisville, Kentucky. In the early s, compulsory busing for racial desegregation was opposed by 98 percent of parent. By , a choice-based system emphasizing socioeconomic alongside racial integration was supported by 89 percent of parents.
With leadership, such success stories can be replicated to help us move, at long last, beyond separate and unequal to something far better for all American students. A growing number of parents, university officials, and employers want our elementary and secondary schools to better prepare students for our increasingly racially and ethnically diverse society and the global economy.
But for reasons we cannot explain, the demands of this large segment of Americans have yet to resonate with most of our federal, state, or local policymakers. Instead, over the past forty years, these policy makers have completely ignored issues of racial segregation while focusing almost exclusively on high-stakes accountability, even as our schools have become increasingly segregated and unequal. This report argues that, as our K—12 student population becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, the time is right for our political leaders to pay more attention to the evidence, intuition, and common sense that supports the importance of racially and ethnically diverse educational settings to prepare the next generation.
It highlights in particular the large body of research that demonstrates the important educational benefits —cognitive, social, and emotional—for all students who interact with classmates from different backgrounds, cultures, and orientations to the world. This research legitimizes the intuition of millions of Americans who recognize that, as the nation becomes more racially and ethnically complex, our schools should reflect that diversity and tap into the benefits of these more diverse schools to better educate all our students for the twenty-first century.
The advocates of racially integrated schools understand that much of the recent racial tension and unrest in this nation—from Ferguson to Baltimore to Staten Island—may well have been avoided if more children had attended schools that taught them to address implicit biases related to racial, ethnic, and cultural differences. This report supports this argument beyond any reasonable doubt. In both contexts, de facto diverse communities are forming, if only temporarily, before patterns of racial segregation re-emerge.
It is also clear from our history that absent strong leadership at the federal, state, and local level to sustain diverse neighborhoods and schools, it is likely we will recreate high levels of racial segregation in both urban and suburban contexts. In this report, we review the research and reasons why, in the field of education in particular, policy makers should listen to the growing demand for more diverse public schools. Drawing on the research from both higher education and K—12 education, we demonstrate that there are important educational benefits to learning in environments with peers who grew up on the other side of the racial divide in this country.
This year, as the U. Supreme Court considers affirmative action once again in the Fisher v. University of Texas 4 case Fisher II , it is an important moment to consider how those arguments translate into the K—12 educational context. In fact, researchers, policy makers, and educators in K—12 were, once upon a time, much more focused on the problem of racial segregation than they have been in recent decades.
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This shift in focus is due in large part, we argue, to the changing policy context in elementary and secondary education over the last several decades—away from school desegregation policy and toward a focus on outcomes and accountability in racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically segregated settings. In fact, the emphasis in K—12 education on narrow student achievement measures has moved the entire field away from examining cultural issues related to race, ethnicity, and the social and emotional development of children.
When we discuss the research evidence on the educational benefits of diversity, we are talking about a more meaningful form of racial and ethnic integration , leading to greater mutual respect, understanding, and empathy across racial lines. While we do not deny the many factors working against the creation and sustainability of more diverse schools and classrooms, we believe that K—12 researchers, policy makers, and parents should pay more attention to the arguments put forth in higher education court cases regarding the educational benefits to all students.
Furthermore, we argue that there already exists a body of research in K—12 education that similarly supports an argument in favor of the educational benefits of diversity, but that unlike the higher education research, it has been largely ignored in recent years.
There is no institution better suited to touch the lives of millions of members of the next generation than our public schools. This report will give voice to the millions who can envision this future for K—12 education and help us get there. Tracing the history of public policies to create racially diverse schools and universities in America—most notably school desegregation in K—12 and affirmative action in higher education—from the mid-twentieth through the early twenty-first century, we see important distinctions between these two educational sectors. These distinctions help us explain why, at a time of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the school age and young adult population in the United States, the policies of K—12 and higher education seem so completely disconnected regarding how to address these demographics changes.
We argue that particularly in the last twenty-five years, the higher education and K—12 paths have drifted apart on the issues of campus, school, and classroom level diversity see Figure 1. This difference is grounded in at least two key factors:.
These benefits are real and substantial, but this focus on student outcomes almost exclusively as the central measure of equal educational opportunity, has, in the long run, led to less emphasis on the educational experiences of students in racially diverse schools and classroom, and thus, fewer efforts to support integration efforts.
There are several political reasons for the distinctions between higher education and K—12 education, not the least of which is the heavy-handed, test-based accountability system that has been implemented in the K—12 system over the last twenty-five years. In fact, many policy makers on both sides of the aisle believe the standards and accountability movement should assure that all students have access to a challenging curriculum, no matter what the racial make-up of their classmates may be. This policy context, coupled with the place-based nature of K—12 education amid severe residential segregation, highly fragmented school districts, and the limitations on interdistrict desegregation remedies after the Supreme Court decision in Milliken v.
Bradley, 8 add up to a public educational system that is simultaneously becoming increasingly diverse in terms of its student population and increasingly segregated and unequal. Figure 1.
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In other words, in the past few decades, prominent higher educational leaders, lawyers, and researchers have worked together to support race-conscious admissions policies, allowing college campuses to remain more racially and culturally diverse than most of the public schools their students attended prior to attending college. Meanwhile, college admissions offices and campus tour guides consistently cite the diversity of the student body as a major asset that enhances the learning of all students in higher education. While our colleges and universities still have much work to do to make their campuses more diverse and more welcoming to students of all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, at least there has been institutional support for race-conscious admissions policies, which is a sharp contrast to the policy focus in K—12 education for the past twenty-five years.
The question then becomes: How might K—12 educational policy makers and researchers play a role in bridging the higher education-K—12 divide on these issues? Since the Regents of the University of California v. These arguments are couched in a First Amendment argument about the rights of universities to define their educational settings, an argument put forth by university leaders and grounded in social science research. Buttressing these arguments on the part of the universities is a growing body of evidence demonstrating several key academic and social outcomes related to student diversity on college campuses.
The central takeaway from this scholarship is that students who attend colleges and universities with more racially and ethnically diverse student bodies are said to be exposed to a wider array of experiences, outlooks, and ideas that can potentially enhance the education of all students. Supreme Court support, bolster, and enhance prior research findings demonstrating the educational benefits of racially and ethnically diverse college campuses. Several amicus briefs in the Fisher II case underscore that research more strongly than ever supports the benefits of college diversity and demonstrates that exposure to diversity enhances critical thinking and problem-solving ability, while also improving several other attributes related to academic success, including student satisfaction and motivation, general knowledge, and intellectual self-confidence.
And improved learning actually occurs in these classrooms because abstract concepts are tied directly to concrete examples drawn from a range of experiences. Recent events across the country concerning policing and campus unrest have raised more awareness of implicit, subconscious biases and how they can produce discriminatory behavior. When white students are in racially homogeneous groups, no such cognitive stimulation occurs.