- Lockheed Ventura.
- Rheology of Fluid and Semisolid Foods : Principles and Applications;
- Lockheed Ventura.
- Lockheed PV Series!
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From the Aleutians, they flew strikes against bases in Paramushiro and Shimushu , Japanese islands in the Kurile chain. Often, PV-1s would lead B bomber formations, since they were equipped with radar. The motivation for redesign was weaknesses in the PV-1, which had shown itself to have problems in taking off when carrying a full load of fuel.
On the PV-2, the armament became standardized at five forward-firing machine guns. While the PV-2 was expected to have increased range and better takeoff, the anticipated speed statistics were projected lower than those of the PV-1, due to the use of the same engines but an increase in weight; the Navy ordered examples, designating them with the popular name Harpoon. This hurdle delayed entry of the PV-2 into service; the PV-2s already delivered were used for training purposes under the designation PV-2C. By the end of , only 69 PV-2s had been delivered, they finally resumed when the redesign was complete.
The first aircraft shipped were the PV-2D, which had eight forward-firing machine guns and was used in ground attacks; when World War II ended, all of the order was cancelled. With the wing problems fixed, the PV-2 proved reliable, and eventually popular, it was first used in the Aleutians by VP, one of the squadrons that originally used the PV It was used by a number of countries after the war's end, but the United States ceased ordering new PV-2s, and they were all soon retired from service. The landing gear was swapped for the heavier-duty units from the PV Later conversions, of which eighteen were completed in the s,  were called Howard s.
At least nineteen PV-1s were further modified, including cabin pressurization under the designation Howard A notable crash of a civilian version occurred on December 17, , killing four, including Fred Miller , president of the Miller Brewing Company and grandson of founder Frederick Miller ; the company plane was bound for Winnipeg , Manitoba , but had trouble with both engines and crashed shortly after takeoff from Mitchell Field in Milwaukee , Wisconsin. The Harpoons were used on operations in the Angolan and Mozambican theatres of the Portuguese Overseas War — , they served as mainly as light bombers and ground attack aircraft, with occasional reconnaissance, transport and maritime patrol sorties.
Nine of the 47 Venturas were shot down and many others were damaged by flak or bird strikes; the force also lost four Bostons and one Mosquito. Significant problems developed coupling up with the escorting fighters, with the end result being that all 10 Venturas that crossed the coast were lost to German fighters. The Ventura was never very popular among RAF crews. By the summer of , the Ventura had been replaced by the de Havilland Mosquito; the last Ventura raid was flown by 21 Squadron on 9 September V in the Mediterranean and by Coastal Command.
V transport aircraft. In the United Kingdom, No. In the Mediterranean, No. It operated primarily in north-eastern Queensland and then the Northern Territory , and later serving in the Borneo campaign in After the war, the squadron used its aircraft to help transport liberated prisoners of war. A total of Ventura G. Vs were used operationally by the RCAF from 16 June to 18 April in the home defence coastal patrol role in both Eastern and Western Air Command, they were flown by 8, , , , and Squadrons. A further 21 Ventura Mk.
Is and Ventura Mk.
A total of 21 Mk. Is, Mk. IIs, and G. Vs were in service during this period for a total of aircraft. Venturas served in the South African Air Force until A few US Navy PV-1s force-landed in the Soviet Union after attacking Japanese targets on the Kurile islands and were impounded; some of them were repaired and pressed into service by the Soviet Air Force where the type became known as the B By December , eight planes were located on airfields on Kamchatka: four were fully airworthy, three were undergoing repairs and one was a write-off.
By seven PV-1s five of them being airworthy were used by the Soviets, one plane was the personal liaison aircraft of Ltc M. Yeryomin; the planes were used during the Soviet-Japanese campaign in August After the end of the war only one aircraft remained in service. The first 19 RBs that arrived by sea from the U. Six airworthy machines were hurriedly produced by cannibalization and sent into action with No.
By this time No. The following year No.
- AN ED-1 Pilot's Handbook for Navy Model PV-2 - PV-2C - PV-2D.
- Highland Scoundrel.
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Some squadrons were retained on garrison duty while others followed the allied advance to Emirau and Green Island and to New Britain. RNZAF Venturas were tasked with routine patrols, anti-shipping strikes, minelaying, bombing and strafing missions, air-sea rescue patrols, and photographic reconnaissance missions.
In an apparently bizarre case of taking Lockheed's marketing slogan of The Fighter-Bomber too literally, even briefly, Venturas conducted fighter sweeps. NZ was attacked by nine Japanese single-engined fighters over St.
George's Channel, it shot down three, later confirmed, and claimed two others as probables, although it suffered heavy damage in the action. The pilot, Flying Officer D. Ayson and navigator, Warrant Officer W.
Hannah was awarded the DFM. By late the Ventura began to be phased out of front line action as the RNZAF backed away from the Patrol Bomber concept, orders for PV-2 Harpoons were canceled after a handful of aircraft had been delivered. Planned re-equipment with de Havilland Mosquitos did not take place until after the cessation of hostilities; the last Ventura unit was No. Army Air Forces. Though some were used as anti-submarine patrol bombers under the designation B Lexington , most were used for training with various stateside units.
During the early months of , the primary responsibility for anti-submarine warfare in the United States was shouldered by the Army Air Forces; this irked the Navy, as it considered this region of battle its burden. To carry out such a task, the Navy was pursuing a long-range, land-based patrol and reconnaissance aircraft with a substantial bomb load; this goal was always resisted by the Army Air Forces, which carefully protected its monopoly on land-based bombing. This forced the navy to use long-range floatplanes for these roles; the Navy was unable to upgrade to more capable aircraft until the Army Air Forces needed the Navy plant in Renton, Washington to manufacture its Boeing B Superfortress.
Full text of "Breeder and sportsman"
In exchange for use of the Renton plant, the Army Air Forces would discontinue its objections to Naval land-based bombers, and provide aircraft to the Navy. One of the clauses of this agreement stated that production of the B and B by Lockheed would cease, and instead these resources would be directed at building a navalized version, the PV-1 Ventura. From the Aleutians, they flew strikes against Paramushiro, a Japanese island. After the war, the U. Navy deemed many PV-1s as obsolete and the aircraft were sent to Naval Air Station Clinton , Oklahoma to be demilitarized and reduced to scrap.
Data from [ citation needed ]. Para-mu-sir, is a volcanic island in the northern portion of Kuril Islands chain in the Sea of Okhotsk in the northwest Pacific Ocean , it is separated from Shumshu by the narrow Second Kuril Strait in the northeast 2. Severo-Kurilsk , the administrative center of the Severo-Kurilsky district, is the only permanently populated settlement on Paramushir island. Paramushir is rectangular, is the second largest of the Kuril Islands with an area of 2, square kilometres.
Geologically, Paramushir is a continuous chain of 23 volcanoes. At least five of them are active, exceed 1, metres: Chikurachki , with a height of 1, metres is the highest peak on Paramushir and the third highest in the Kuril Islands. It has erupted in , , , and several times between — During the most recent eruption in August , the volcanic ash reached the town of Severo-Kurilsk located 60 km north-east; the previous eruption took place on March 4, , when a 1.
Fuss Peak , with a height of 1, metres is a conical stratovolcano , it has erupted in , and Lomonosov Group , with a height of 1, metres is part of the Chikurachki group.
Karpinsky Group , with a height of 1, metres has erupted in Ebeko , with a height of 1, metres has erupted numerous times, most in ; the central crater of Ebeko is filled by a caldera lake about 20 metres deep. Paramushir has a sub-arctic climate modulated by the cooling effects of the North Pacific Oyashio Current. The arboreal flora of Paramushir is limited to dense, stunted copses of Siberian dwarf pine and shrubby alder.
The alpine tundra which dominates the landscape produces plentiful edible mushrooms and berries lingonberry , Arctic raspberry and crowberry. Red fox, Arctic hare and ermine hunted by the inhabitants; the island supports a population of brown bears. In the spring crested auklet nest on the island; the straits between Paramushir and Shumshu island support a notably dense population of sea otters.
North Pacific right whales, one of the rarest and the most endangered whale species are known to appear in the surrounding waters. Several species of charr and Pacific salmon spawn in its rivers, notably in the Tukharka river, which at 20 kilometres is the longest river on the island. Paramushir was inhabited by the Ainu at the time of European contact; the island appears on an official map showing the territories of Matsumae Domain , a feudal domain of Edo period Japan dated Russian fur traders are known to have visited the island in and , Russian Orthodox missionaries established a church in to convert the local inhabitants.
Subsequently, claimed by the Empire of Russia , sovereignty over the island was confirmed to be under Imperial Russia under the terms of the Treaty of Shimoda in , but was transferred to the Empire of Japan per the Treaty of Saint Petersburg along with the rest of the Kuril Islands. During World War II the island was garrisoned by both the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy ; the headquarters of the IJA 91st Infantry Division, responsible for defense of the northern Kurils , was established at Kashiwabara, numerous coastal artillery positions and fortified bunkers were constructed in various locations around the island.
In addition, the Imperial Japanese Army constructed four airfields: Kashiwabara Airfield in the northeast with Ki Oscars , Kakumabestu Airfield on the southwest coast with a 3, feet runway and Ki Tojos, Kitanodai Airfield on the northeast coast with a 4, feet runway, Suribachi Airfield, an auxiliary base in the center of the south coast with two runways.
Lockheed PV-2 PV-2C PV-2D Aircraft Pilot Handbook Manual, AN 01-55ED-1, 1945
The Imperial Japanese Navy had Musashi Airfield on the south-western tip of the island with two 4, feet runways, one 4, ft and another 4, ft, operating a variety of aircraft as well as a radar site. Soviet troops landed on Paramushir on August 18, , during the Invasion of the Kuril Islands , combat operations continued through August 23, ending with the surrender of the surviving members of the Japanese garrison; the Soviets forcibly deported the remaining Japanese civilian inhabitants and sent the prisoners of war to labor camps.
Kashiwabara was renamed Severo-Kurilsk and the island annexed by the Soviet Union in Japan formally gave up sovereignt. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April , it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world.
Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain ; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence , which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism.
The RAF describes its mission statement as " The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power. Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft.
The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire ; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom.
In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few". While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden , developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the " Dambusters " raid by No.
Following victory in the Second World War , the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War , one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in and the Berlin Airlift , codenamed Operation Plainfire. Due to the uniqueness of their night fight mission, VMF was placed under the direction of the Commandant of the Marine Corps until it was ready to deploy to combat.
Joining Marine Aircraft Group 21 , 1st Marine Aircraft Wing , the Grey Ghosts flew their first combat patrol on September 16 making them the first naval aviation night-fighter squadron to operate in the South Pacific; the squadron's first kill was made by Captain Duane Jenkins, who happened upon a Betty bomber on the evening of November 13, The first kill aided by GCI did not come until December 6.
During their tour in the Pacific, the squadron operated out of fields in the Russell Islands, Vella Lavella and Bougainville , they accounted for 12 enemy planes shot down by 5 different crews, all at night, with a loss of 6 of their own aircraft and 17 crew members, none of them a result of enemy fire.